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Introduction

uary 2013}}The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. It represents a continuous, though periodically disrupted tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, and spanning continents and millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing river of creativity, that continues into the 21st century. Until the early 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor.Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and, eventually, vice-versa.Initially serving utilitarian purpose, followed by imperial, private, civic, and religious patronage, Eastern and Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy and the middle class. From the Modern era, the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters worked for the church and a wealthy aristocracy. Beginning with the Baroque era artists received private commissions from a more educated and prosperous middle class. Finally in the west the idea of "art for art's sake" began to find expression in the work of the Romantic painters like Francisco de Goya, John Constable, and J.M.W. Turner. During the 19th century the rise of the commercial art gallery provided patronage in the 20th century.



        Introduction
                Pre-history
                Eastern painting
                        East Asian painting
                                Chinese painting
                                Japanese painting
                        South Asian painting
                        Indian painting
                                History
                                        Rajput painting
                                        Mughal painting
                                        Tanjore painting
                                        The Madras School
                                        The Bengal School
                                        Modern Indian painting
                        Filipino Painting
                        South-East Asia
                Western painting
                        Egypt, Greece and Rome
                        Middle Ages
                        Renaissance and Mannerism
                        Baroque and Rococo
                        18th and 19th centuries: Neo-classicism, History painting, Romanticism, Impressionism, Post Impressionism, Symbolism
                        20th-century Modern and Contemporary
                                Pioneers of the 20th century
                                Pioneers of Modern art
                                Pioneers of abstraction
                                Dada and Surrealism
                                Between the Wars
                                Social consciousness
                                World conflict
                                Towards mid-century
                                Abstract expressionism
                                Pop art
                                Figurative, Landscape, Still-Life, Seascape, and Realism
                                Art brut, New Realism, Bay Area Figurative Movement, neo-Dada, photorealism
                                New abstraction from the 1950s through the 1980s
                                Washington Color School, Shaped Canvas, Abstract Illusionism, Lyrical Abstraction
                                Hard-edge painting, minimalism, postminimalism, monochrome painting
                                Neo Expressionism
                                Contemporary painting into the 21st century
                Painting in the Americas
                        Mexico and Central America
                        South America
                                United States
                                Canada
                        Caribbean
                Islamic painting
                        Iran
                        Pakistan
                Oceania
                        Australia
                        New Zealand
                Africa
                        Influence on Western art
                See also
                Further reading


Pre-history

The oldest known paintings are approximately 40,000 years old. José Luis Sanchidrián at the University of Cordoba, Spain, believes the paintings are more likely to have been painted by Neanderthals than early modern humans. The Grotte Chauvet in France is claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world?in France, India, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia etc. Various conjectures have been made as to the meaning these paintings had to the people that made them. Prehistoric men may have painted animals to "catch" their soul or spirit in order to hunt them more easily or the paintings may represent an animistic vision and homage to surrounding nature, or they may be the result of a basic need of expression that is innate to human beings, or they could have been for the transmission of practical information.Image:Bhimbetka.JPG|Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, rock painting, Stone Age, IndiaImage:lascaux2.jpg|Lascaux, Horse Image:San Painting, Ukalamba Drakensberge 1.JPG|Eland, rock painting, Drakensberg, South AfricaImage:Lascaux painting.jpg|Lascaux, Bulls and HorsesFile:AltamiraBison.jpg|Bison, in the great hall of policromes, Cave of Altamira, SpainImage:Haljesta.jpg|Petroglyphs, from Sweden, Nordic Bronze Age (painted)Image:GreatGalleryedit.jpg|Pictographs from the Great Gallery, Canyonlands National Park, Horseshoe Canyon, Utah, c. 1500 BCEFile:SantaCruz-CuevaManos-P2210651b.jpg|Cueva de las Manos (Spanish for Cave of the Hands) in the Santa Cruz province in Argentina, c.550 BCIn Paleolithic times, the representation of humans in cave paintings was rare. Mostly, animals were painted, not only animals that were used as food but also animals that represented strength like the rhinoceros or large Felidae, as in the Chauvet Cave. Signs like dots were sometimes drawn. Rare human representations include handprints and half-human / animal figures. The Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche Departments of France contains the most important preserved cave paintings of the Paleolithic era, painted around 31,000 BC. The Altamira cave paintings in Spain were done 14,000 to 12,000 BC and show, among others, bisons. The hall of bulls in Lascaux, Dordogne, France, is one of the best known cave paintings from about 15,000 to 10,000 BC.If there is meaning to the paintings, it remains unknown. The caves were not in an inhabited area, so they may have been used for seasonal rituals. The animals are accompanied by signs which suggest a possible magic use. Arrow-like symbols in Lascaux are sometimes interpreted as calendar or almanac use. But the evidence remains inconclusive. The most important work of the Mesolithic era were the marching warriors, a rock painting at Cingle de la Mola, Castellón, Spain dated to about 7000 to 4000 BC. The technique used was probably spitting or blowing the pigments onto the rock. The paintings are quite naturalistic, though stylized. The figures are not three-dimensional, even though they overlapThe earliest known Indian paintings (see section below) wer
Eastern painting

The history of Eastern painting includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general a few centuries earlier. African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art, each had significant influence on Western art, and, vice-versa.Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. The earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental; they consisted of patterns or designs rather than pictures. Early pottery was painted with spirals, zigzags, dots, or animals. It was only during the Warring States period (403?221 B.C.) that artists began to represent the world around them. Japanese painting is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety of genre and styles. The history of Japanese painting is a long history of synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas. The history of Korean painting is dated to approximately 108 C.E., when it first appears as an independent form. Between that time and the paintings and frescoes that appear on the Goryeo dynasty tombs, there has been little research. Suffice to say that until the Joseon dynasty the primary influence was Chinese painting though done with Korean landscapes, facial features, Buddhist topics, and an emphasis on celestial observation in keeping with the rapid development of Korean astronomy.




East Asian painting

See also Chinese painting, Japanese painting, Korean painting.Image:Guardians of Day and Night, Han Dynasty.jpg|Paintings on tile of guardian spirits donned in Chinese robes, from the Han Dynasty (202 BC ? 220 AD)File:Gentlemen in conversation, Eastern Han Dynasty.jpg|Gentlemen in Conversation, tomb painting dated to the Eastern Han Dynasty (25?220 AD).Image:Sun Quan Tang.jpg|Emperor Sun Quan in the Thirteen Emperors Scroll and Northern Qi Scholars Collating Classic Texts, by Yan Liben (c. 600?673 AD), ChineseImage:EightySevenCelestials3.jpg|Eighty-Seven Celestials, by Wu Daozi (685?758), ChineseImage:Hangan03.jpg|Portrait of Night-Shining White, by Han Gan, 8th century, ChineseImage:Spring Outing of the Tang Court.jpg|Spring Outing of the Tang Court, by Zhang Xuan, 8th century, ChineseFile:Anonymous-Astana Graves Servant Girl2.jpg|Servant, 8th century, ChineseImage:Meister nach Chang Hsüan 001.jpg|Ladies making silk, a remake of an 8th-century original by Zhang Xuan by Emperor Huizong of Song, early 12th century, ChineseImage:E innga kyo.jpg|An illustrated sutra from the Nara period, 8th century, JapaneseImage:Chou Fang 001.jpg|Ladies Playing Double Sixes, by Zhou Fang (730?800 AD), ChineseImage:A palace concert.jpg|Yard concert, 10th century, ChineseImage:Xiao and Xiang rivers.jpg|The Xiao and Xiang Rivers, by Dong Yuan (c. 934?962 AD), ChineseImage:Gu Hongzhong's Night Revels, Detail 1.jpg|Night Revels, a Song Dynasty remake of a 10th-century original by Gu Hongzhong.File:Shenzong of Song.jpg|Court portrait of Emperor Shenzong of Song (r. 1067?1085), ChineseImage:Songhuizong4.jpg|Golden Pheasant and Cotton Rose, by Emperor Huizong of Song (r.1100?1126 AD), ChineseImage:Songhuizong8.jpg|Listening to the Guqin, by Emperor Huizong of Song (1100?1126 AD), ChineseImage:Su Han Ch'en 001.jpg|Children Playing, by Su Han Chen, c. 1150, ChineseImage:Chinesischer Maler des 12. Jahrhunderts (II) 001.jpg|Chinese, anonymous artist of the 12th century Song DynastyImage:Chinesischer Maler von 1238 001.jpg|Portrait of the Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, 1238 AD, ChineseImage:Ma Lin 010.jpg|Ma Lin, 1246 AD, ChineseImage:Zhao Mengfu1.jpg|A Man and His Horse in the Wind, by Zhao Mengfu (1254?1322 AD), ChineseImage:SesshuToyo.jpg|Shukei-sansui (Autumn Landscape), Sesshu Toyo (1420?1506), JapaneseFile:Zhou Maoshu Appreciating Lotuses.jpg|Kan? Masanobu, 15th-century founder of the Kan? school, Zhou Maoshu Appreciating Lotuses, JapaneseImage:Kano White-robed Kannon, Bodhisattva of Compassion.jpg|A White-Robed Kannon, Bodhisattva of Compassion, by Kan? Motonobu (1476?1559), JapaneseImage:Mogyeon.jpg|Yi Ahm (1499-?), Mother Dog, 15th century, National Museum of KoreaImage:T'ang Yin 003.jpg|Tang Yin, A Fisher in Autumn, (1523), ChineseImage:Nanbansen2.jpg|Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan, 16th century, JapaneseImage:Kano Eitoku 010.jpg|A screen painting depicting people playing Go, by Kan? Eitoku (1543?1590), JapaneseImage:Pine Trees.jpg|Pine Trees, six sided screen, by Hasegawa Tohaku (1539?1610), JapaneseImage:Bodhidarma.jpg|Scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma, "Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha", Hakuin Ekaku (1686 to 1769), JapaneseImage:Shunkeizu.jpg|Hanging scroll 1672, Kan? Tany?
Chinese painting

The earliest (surviving) examples of Chinese painted artwork date to the Warring States Period (481 ? 221 BC), with paintings on silk or tomb murals on rock, brick, or stone. They were often in simplistic stylized format and in more-or-less rudimentary geometric patterns. They often depicted mythological creatures, domestic scenes, labor scenes, or palatial scenes filled with officials at court. Artwork during this period and the subsequent Qin Dynasty (221 ? 207 BC) and Han Dynasty (202 BC ? 220 AD) was made not as a means in and of itself or for higher personal expression. Rather artwork was created to symbolize and honor funerary rights, representations of mythological deities or spirits of ancestors, etc. Paintings on silk of court officials and domestic scenes could be found during the Han Dynasty, along with scenes of men hunting on horseback or partaking in military parade. There was also painting on three dimensional works of art on figurines and statues, such as the original-painted colors covering the soldier and horse statues of the Terracotta Army. During the social and cultural climate of the ancient Eastern Jin Dynasty (316 ? 420 AD) based at Nanjing in the south, painting became one of the official pastimes of Confucian-taught bureaucratic officials and aristocrats (along with music played by the guqin zither, writing fanciful calligraphy, and writing and reciting of poetry). Painting became a common form of artistic self-expression, and during this period painters at court or amongst elite social circuits were judged and ranked by their peers.The establishment of classical Chinese landscape painting is accredited largely to the Eastern Jin Dynasty artist Gu Kaizhi (344 ? 406 AD), one of the most famous artists of Chinese history. Like the elongated scroll scenes of Kaizhi, Tang Dynasty (618 ? 907 AD) Chinese artists like Wu Daozi painted vivid and highly detailed artwork on long horizontal handscrolls (which were very popular during the Tang), such as his Eighty Seven Celestial People. Painted artwork during the Tang period pertained the effects of an idealized landscape environment, with sparse amount of objects, persons, or activity, as well as monochromatic in nature (example: the murals of Price Yide's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum). There were also figures such as early Tang-era painter Zhan Ziqian, who painted superb landscape paintings that were well ahead of his day in portrayal of realism. However, landscape art did not reach greater level of maturity and realism in general until the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907 ? 960 AD). During this time, there were exceptional landscape painters like Dong Yuan (refer to this article for an example of his artwork), and those who painted more vivid and realistic depictions of domestic scenes, like Gu Hongzhong and his Night Revels of Han Xizai.During the Chinese Song Dynasty (960 ? 1279 AD), not only landscape art was improved upon, but portrait painting became more standardized and sophisticated than before (for example, refer to Emperor Huizong of Song), and reached its classical age maturity during the Ming Dynasty (1368 ? 1644 AD). During the late 13th century and first half of the 14th c
Japanese painting

Japanese painting (??) is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety on genre and styles. As with the history of Japanese arts in general, the history Japanese painting is a long history of synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas. Ukiyo-e, "pictures of the floating world", is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of landscapes, the theatre and pleasure quarters. It is the main artistic genre of woodblock printing in Japan. Japanese printmaking especially from the Edo period exerted enormous influence on Western painting in France during the 19th century.




South Asian painting

Image:Südindischer Meister um 1540 001.jpg|A group of women from South India, Hindupur, c. 1540.Image:Meister des Gîtâ-Govinda-Manuskripts 001.jpg|Krishna embraces Gopîs, Gîtâ-Govinda-manuscript, 1760?1765.Image:Indischer Maler um 850 001.jpg|Floating Figures Dancing, a mural of c. 850.Image:Südindischer Meister um 1540 002.jpg|Wild Pig Hunt, c. 1540.Image:ChandBibiHawking.png|Chand Bibi hawking, Deccan style, 18th centuryImage:Indischer Maler um 1750 (III) 001.jpg|A Lady Listening to Music, c. 1750.Image:Indischer Maler von 1720 001.jpg|Rasamañjarî manuscript of the Bhânudatta (erotic treatise), 1720.Image:Indischer Maler um 700 001.jpg|Mural fragment of a lady with a parasol, c. 700.Image:Radha and Krishna in Discussion.jpg|Bahsoli painting of Radha and Krishna in Discussion, c. 1730.Image:Maharaja Sital Dev of Mankot in Devotion.jpg|Bahsoli painting of Maharaja Sital Dev of Mankot in Devotion, c. 1690.Image:Indischer Maler um 1615 (I) 001.jpg|Portrait of Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1580?1626) of Bijapur, 1615.Image:Meister des Nujûm-al-'Ulûm-Manuskripts 001.jpg|The Throne of the Wealth, Nujûm-al-' Ulûm-manuscript, 1570.Image:Elefant und Jungtier aus dem Stall der Moghulkaiser.jpg|Elephant and cub out of the stable of the Moghul ruler, 17th century.Image:Meister der Hamza-Nâma-Handschrift 001.jpg|Mihrdukht Shoots an Arrow Through a Ring, 1564?1579.Image:Meister des Porträts des Govardhân Chand 001.jpg|Portrait of the Govardhân Chand, Punjab style, c. 1750.Image:Ravi Varma-Ravana Sita Jathayu.jpg|Ravana kills Jathayu; the captive Sita despairs, by Raja Ravi VarmaImage:Akbar and Tansen visit Haridas.jpg|Akbar and Tansen Visit Haridas in Vrindavan, Rajasthan style, c. 1750.Image:Indischer Maler um 1760 001.jpg|A man with children, Punjab style, 1760.Image:Indischer Maler um 1770 001.jpg|Râdhâ arrests Krishna, Punjab style, 1770.Image:Indischer Maler von 1780 001.jpg|Rama and Sita in the Forest, Punjab style, 1780.




Indian painting

Indian paintings historically revolved around the religious deities and kings. Indian art is a collective term for several different schools of art that existed in the Indian subcontinent. The paintings varied from large frescoes of Ajanta to the intricate Mughal miniature paintings to the metal embellished works from the Tanjore school. The paintings from the Gandhar?Taxila are influenced by the Persian works in the west. The eastern style of painting was mostly developed around the Nalanda school of art. The works are mostly inspired by various scenes from Indian mythology.




History

The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of prehistoric times, the petroglyphs as found in places like the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, and some of them are older than 5500 BC. Such works continued and after several millennia, in the 7th century, carved pillars of Ajanta, Maharashtra state present a fine example of Indian paintings, and the colors, mostly various shades of red and orange, were derived from minerals.Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, India are rock-cut cave monuments dating back to the 2nd century BCE and containing paintings and sculpture considered to be masterpieces of both Buddhist religious art and universal pictorial art.

Madhubani painting
Madhubani painting is a style of Indian painting, practiced in the Mithila region of Bihar state, India. The origins of Madhubani painting are shrouded in antiquity.




Rajput painting

Rajput painting, a style of Indian painting, evolved and flourished, during the 18th century, in the royal courts of Rajputana, India. Each Rajput kingdom evolved a distinct style, but with certain common features. Rajput paintings depict a number of themes, events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna's life, beautiful landscapes, and humans. Miniatures were the preferred medium of Rajput painting, but several manuscripts also contain Rajput paintings, and paintings were even done on the walls of palaces, inner chambers of the forts, havelies, particularly, the havelis of Shekhawait.The colors extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, conch shells, and were even derived by processing precious stones, gold and silver were used. The preparation of desired colors was a lengthy process, sometimes taking weeks. Brushes used were very fine.




Mughal painting

Mughal painting is a particular style of Indian painting, generally confined to illustrations on the book and done in miniatures, and which emerged, developed and took shape during the period of the Mughal Empire 16th ?19th centuries.




Tanjore painting

Tanjore painting is an important form of classical South Indian painting native to the town of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu. The art form dates back to the early 9th century, a period dominated by the Chola rulers, who encouraged art and literature. These paintings are known for their elegance, rich colors, and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. In modern times, these paintings have become a much sought after souvenir during festive occasions in South India.The process of making a Tanjore painting involves many stages. The first stage involves the making of the preliminary sketch of the image on the base. The base consists of a cloth pasted over a wooden base. Then chalk powder or zinc oxide is mixed with water-soluble adhesive and applied on the base. To make the base smoother, a mild abrasive is sometimes used. After the drawing is made, decoration of the jewellery and the apparels in the image is done with semi-precious stones. Laces or threads are also used to decorate the jewellery. On top of this, the gold foils are pasted. Finally, dyes are used to add colors to the figures in the paintings.




The Madras School

During British rule in India, the crown found that Madras had some of the most talented and intellectual artistic minds in the world. As the British had also established a huge settlement in and around Madras, Georgetown was chosen to establish an institute that would cater to the artistic expectations of the royals in London. This has come to be known as the Madras School. At first traditional artists were employed to produce exquisite varieties of furniture, metal work, and curios and their work was sent to the royal palaces of the Queen.Unlike the Bengal School where 'copying' is the norm of teaching, the Madras School flourishes on 'creating' new styles, arguments and trends.




The Bengal School

The Bengal school of art was an influential style of art that flourished in India during the British Raj in the early 20th century. It was associated with Indian nationalism, but was also promoted and supported by many British arts administrators.The Bengal School arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the academic art styles previously promoted in India, both by Indian artists such as Raja Ravi Varma and in British art schools. Following the widespread influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, the British art teacher Ernest Binfield Havel attempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Art by encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures. This caused immense controversy, leading to a strike by students and complaints from the local press, including from nationalists who considered it to be a retrogressive move. Havel was supported by the artist Abanindranath Tagore, a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore painted a number of works influenced by Mughal art, a style that he and Havel believed to be expressive of India's distinct spiritual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West. Tagore's best-known painting, Bharat Mata (Mother India), depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations. Tagore later attempted to develop links with Japanese artists as part of an aspiration to construct a pan-Asianist model of art.The Bengal School's influence in India declined with the spread of modernist ideas in the 1920s. In the post-independence period, Indian artists showed more adaptability as they borrowed freely from european styles and amalgamated them freely with the Indian motifs to new forms of art. While artists like Francis Newton Souza and Tyeb Mehta were more western in their approach, there were others like Ganesh Pyne and Maqbool Fida Husain who developed thoroughly indigenous styles of work. Today after the process of liberalization of market in India, the artists are experiencing more exposure to the international art-scene which is helping them in emerging with newer forms of art which were hitherto not seen in India. Jitish Kallat had shot to fame in the late 1990s with his paintings which were both modern and beyond the scope of generic definition. However, while artists in India in the new century are trying out new styles, themes and metaphors, it would not have been possible to get such quick recognition without the aid of the business houses which are now entering the art field like they had never before.




Modern Indian painting

Amrita Sher-Gil was an Indian painter, sometimes known as India's Frida Kahlo, and today considered an important woman painter of 20th-century India, whose legacy stands at par with that of the Masters of Bengal Renaissance; she is also the 'most expensive' woman painter of India.Today, she is amongst Nine Masters, whose work was declared as art treasures by The Archaeological Survey of India, in 1976 and 1979, and over 100 of her paintings are now displayed at National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi.During the colonial era, Western influences started to make an impact on Indian art. Some artists developed a style that used Western ideas of composition, perspective and realism to illustrate Indian themes. Others, like Jamini Roy, consciously drew inspiration from folk art.By the time of Independence in 1947, several schools of art in India provided access to modern techniques and ideas. Galleries were established to showcase these artists. Modern Indian art typically shows the influence of Western styles, but is often inspired by Indian themes and images. Major artists are beginning to gain international recognition, initially among the Indian diaspora, but also among non-Indian audiences.The Progressive Artists' Group, established shortly after India became independent in 1947, was intended to establish new ways of expressing India in the post-colonial era. The founders were six eminent artists ? K. H. Ara, S. K. Bakre, H. A. Gade, M.F. Husain, S.H. Raza and F. N. Souza, though the group was dissolved in 1956, it was profoundly influential in changing the idiom of Indian art. Almost all India's major artists in the 1950s were associated with the group. Some of those who are well-known today are Bal Chabda, Manishi Dey, Mukul Dey, V. S. Gaitonde, Ram Kumar, Tyeb Mehta, and Akbar Padamsee. Other famous painters like Jahar Dasgupta, Prokash Karmakar, John Wilkins, Narayanan Ramachandran, and Bijon Choudhuri enriched the art culture of India. They have become the icons of modern Indian art. Art historians like Prof. Rai Anand Krishna have also referred to those works of modern artistes that reflect Indian ethos. Geeta Vadhera has had acclaim in translating complex, Indian spiritual themes onto canvas like Sufi thought, the Upanishads and the Bhagwad Geeta.Indian Art got a boost with the economic liberalization of the country since early 1990s. Artists from various fields now started bringing in varied styles of work. Post liberalization Indian art works not only within the confines of academic traditions but also outside it. Artists have introduced new concepts which have hitherto not been seen in Indian art. Devajyoti Ray has introduced a new genre of art called Pseudorealism. Pseudorealist Art is an original art style that has been developed entirely on the Indian soil. Pseudorealism takes into account the Indian concept of abstraction and uses it to transform regular scenes of Indian life into a fantastic images.In post-liberalization India, many artists have established themselves in the international art market like the abstract painter Natvar Bhavsar and sculptor Anish Kapoor whose mammoth postminimalist artworks have acquired attention for their sheer size. Many art ho
Filipino Painting

Filipino painting as a whole can be seen as an amalgamation of many cultural influences, though it tends to be more Western in its current form with Eastern roots.Early Filipino painting can be found in red slip (clay mixed with water) designs embellished on the ritual pottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimed Manunggul Jar. Evidence of Philippine pottery-making dated as early as 6000 BC has been found in Sanga-sanga Cave, Sulu and Laurente Cave, Cagayan. It has been proven that by 5000 BC, the making of pottery was practiced throughout the country. Early Filipinos started making pottery before their Cambodian neighbors and at about the same time as the Thais as part of what appears to be a widespread Ice Age development of pottery technology. Further evidences of painting are manifested in the tattoo tradition of early Filipinos, whom the Portuguese explorer referred to as Pintados or the 'Painted People' of the Visayas. Various designs referencing flora and fauna with heavenly bodies decorate their bodies in various colored pigmentation. Perhaps, some of the most elaborate painting done by early Filipinos that survive to the present day can be manifested among the arts and architecture of the Maranao who are well known for the N?ga Dragons and the Sarimanok carved and painted in the beautiful Panolong of their Torogan or King's House.Filipinos began creating paintings in the European tradition during the 17th-century Spanish period. The earliest of these paintings were Church frescoes, religious imagery from Biblical sources, as well as engravings, sculptures and lithographs featuring Christian icons and European nobility. Most of the paintings and sculptures between the 19th, and 20th century produced a mixture of religious, political, and landscape art works, with qualities of sweetness, dark, and light. Early modernist painters such as Damián Domingo was associated with religious, and secular paintings. The art of Juan Luna and Félix Hidalgo showed a trend for political statement. Artist such as Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated Philippine culture, nature and harmony. While other artist such as Fernando Zóbel used realities and abstract on his work. In early 1980s other unique folk artist exist one of these is Elito Circa as amangpintor the famous Filipino folk painter. He uses his own hair to make his paintbrushes, and signs his name with his own blood on the right side of his paintings. He developed his own styles without professional training or guidance from masters.File:The Death of Cleopatra by Juan Luna1881.jpg|Juan Luna, The Death of Cleopatra,1881File:Juan Luna Spoliarium.jpg|Juan Luna, Spoliarium, c. 1884File:Odalisque painting by Juan Luna 1885.jpg|Juan Luna, Odalisque, 1885.File:The Blood Compact by Juan Luna.jpg|Juan Luna, Blood Compact, 1886File:Las Virgenes Cristianas Expuestas Al Populacho (The Christian Virgins Being Exposed to the Populace) by Felix Ressureccion Hidalgo 1884.jpg|Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, The Christian Virgins Being Exposed to the Populace, 1884File:La Barca de Aqueronte by Felix Resurreccion H
South-East Asia




Western painting




Egypt, Greece and Rome

Ancient Egypt, a civilization with very strong traditions of architecture and sculpture (both originally painted in bright colours) also had many mural paintings in temples and buildings, and painted illustrations on papyrus manuscripts. Egyptian wall painting and decorative painting is often graphic, sometimes more symbolic than realistic. Egyptian painting depicts figures in bold outline and flat silhouette, in which symmetry is a constant characteristic. Egyptian painting has close connection with its written language ? called Egyptian hieroglyphs. Painted symbols are found amongst the first forms of written language. The Egyptians also painted on linen, remnants of which survive today. Ancient Egyptian paintings survived due to the extremely dry climate. The ancient Egyptians created paintings to make the afterlife of the deceased a pleasant place. The themes included journey through the afterworld or their protective deities introducing the deceased to the gods of the underworld. Some examples of such paintings are paintings of the gods and goddesses Ra, Horus, Anubis, Nut, Osiris and Isis. Some tomb paintings show activities that the deceased were involved in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity. In the New Kingdom and later, the Book of the Dead was buried with the entombed person. It was considered important for an introduction to the afterlife.File:Maler der Grabkammer des Sennudem 001.jpg|Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, ca. 1200 BC Image:Ägyptischer Maler um 1360 v. Chr. 001.jpg|Ancient Egypt,The Goddess Isis, wall painting, ca.1360 BCImage:Maler der Grabkammer der Nefertari 004.jpg|Ancient Egypt, Queen NefertariImage:egyptian papyrus.jpg|Ancient Egypt, papyrusImage:Ägyptischer Maler um 1355 v. Chr. 001.jpg|Ancient EgyptImage:Egypt.Ra-Apep.01.jpg|Ancient EgyptImage:NAMA Sacrifice aux Charites.jpg|Pitsa panels, one of the few surviving panel paintings from Archaic Greece, ca. 540?530 BCImage:Symposiumnorthwall.jpg|Symposium scene in the Tomb of the Diver at Paestum, circa 480 BC Greek artImage:KnossosFrescoRepro06827.jpg|KnossosImage:Pompejanischer Maler um 80 v. Chr. 001.jpg|Roman art, PompeiiFile:Hercules-and-telephus.jpg|Roman artFile:Boscoreale1.jpg|Roman artImage:Pompeii Painter.jpg|Roman artImage:Pompejanischer Maler um 10 20 001.jpg|Roman artImage:Portrait du Fayoum 02.JPG|Roman artImage:Fayum02.jpg|Roman artTo the north of Egypt was the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. The wall paintings found in the palace of Knossos are similar to that of the Egyptians but much more free in style. Around 1100 B.C., tribes from the north of Greece conquered Greece and the Greek art took a new direction.Ancient Greece had great painters, great sculptors (though both endeavours were regarded as mere manual labour at the time), and great architects. The Parthenon is an example of their architecture that has lasted to modern days. Greek marble sculpture is often described as the highest form of Classical art. Painting on pottery of Ancient Greece and ceramics gives a particularly informative glimpse into the way society in Ancient Greece functioned. Black-figure vase painting and Red-figure vase painting gives many surviving examples of what Greek painting was. Some famous Greek painters on wooden
Middle Ages

Image:CottonGenesisFragment26vAbrahamAndAngels.JPG|Cotton Genesis A miniature of Abraham Meeting AngelsImage:Spas_vsederzhitel_sinay.jpg|Byzantine icon, 6th centuryImage:Meister_von_San_Vitale_in_Ravenna_003.jpg|Byzantine art mosaics in RavennaImage:RabulaGospelsFol13vAscension.jpg|Byzantine, 6th-centuryImage:Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry Janvier.jpg|Limbourg BrothersImage:Les_Très_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_juin.jpg|Limbourg BrothersImage:KellsFol292rIncipJohn.jpg|Book of KellsImage:KellsFol032vChristEnthroned.jpg|Book of KellsImage:RossanoGospelsFolio121rStMark.jpg|Evangelist portraitImage:Codexaureus 25.jpg|CarolingianImage:Ebbo Gospels St Mark.jpg|Carolingian Saint Mark Image:Yaroslavl gospel.jpg|Yaroslavl Gospels c. 1220sImage:Giottino pieta.jpg|GiottinoImage:Madonna dei denti.jpg|Vitale da BolognaImage:Simone Martini 072.jpg|Simone MartiniFile:Simone Martini - Blessed Agostino Novello Altarpiece - WGA21422.jpg|Simone MartiniImage:Cimabue 025.jpg|Cimabue's Santa Croce CrucifixImage:Giotto Cruxifixion.jpg|GiottoFile:Giotto - Scrovegni - -18- - Adoration of the Magi.jpg|GiottoImage:Andrej Rublëv 001.jpg|Andrei RublevImage:Rublev vosnesenie.jpg|Andrei Rublev, Ascension, 1408 Image:Lorenzetti gov.jpg|Ambrogio Lorenzetti Image:Lorenzetti Pietro Beata Umilta.jpg|Pietro LorenzettiImage:Duccio di Buoninsegna 036.jpg|DuccioFile:Bonaventura Berlinghieri Francesco.jpg|Bonaventura Berlinghieri, St Francis of Assisi, 1235Image:Voronet last judgment.jpg|Voronet MonasteryImage:Chora Church Constantinople 2007 011.jpg|Chora ChurchImage:Moscow Archangel Michael Cathedral overhead.jpg|Cathedral of the ArchangelRogier van der Weyden, ''Ivo of Kermartin|St Ivo'' (c. 1450)The rise of Christianity imparted a different spirit and aim to painting styles. Byzantine art, once its style was established by the 6th century, placed great emphasis on retaining traditional iconography and style, and has changed relatively little through the thousand years of the Byzantine Empire and the continuing traditions of Greek and Russian Orthodox icon-painting. Byzantine painting has a particularly hieratic feeling and icons were and still are seen as a reflection of the divine. There were also many wall-paintings in fresco, but fewer of these have survived than Byzantine mosaics. In general Byzantium art borders on abstraction, in its flatness and highly stylised depictions of figures and landscape. However, there are periods, especially in the so-called Macedonian art of around the 10th century, when Byzantine art became more flexible in approach.In post-Antique Catholic Europe the first distinctive artistic style to emerge that included painting was the Insular art of the British Isles, where the only surviving examples (and quite likely the only medium in which painting was used) are miniatures in Illuminated manuscripts such as the Book of Kells. These are most famous for their abstract decoration, although figures, and sometimes scenes, were also depicted, especially in Evangelist portraits. Carolingian and Ottonian art also survives mostly in manuscripts, although some wall-painting remain, and more are documented. The art of this period combines Insular and "barbarian" influences with a strong Byzantine influence and an aspiration to recover classical monumentality and poise.Walls of Romanesque and Gothic churches were decorated with frescoes as well as sculpture and many of the few remaining murals have gr
Renaissance and Mannerism

Image:Fra Angelico 037.jpg|Fra AngelicoImage:Madonna and Child (Filippo Lippi).jpg|Filippo LippiImage:Andrea Mantegna 036.jpg|Andrea MantegnaImage:Masaccio-TheExpulsionOfAdamAndEveFromEden-Restoration.jpg|Masaccio The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, before and after restoration File:Paolo Uccello 047b.jpg|Paolo UccelloImage:Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg|Leonardo da VinciFile:Raphael - The Small Cowper Madonna - Google Art Project.jpg|RaphaelImage:Michelangelo - Creation of Adam.jpg|Michelangelo File:Duerer01.jpg|Albrecht DürerFile:Giovanni Bellini St Francis in Ecstasy.jpg|Giovanni BelliniImage:Vecellio di Gregorio Tiziano - autoritratto.jpg|TitianImage:Leonardo da Vinci 002.jpg|Leonardo da VinciImage:Resurrection.JPG|Piero della FrancescaImage:Giorgione_tempest.jpg|GiorgioneImage:Jacopo Tintoretto 001.jpg|Jacopo TintorettoImage:Sandro Botticelli - La nascita di Venere - Google Art Project - edited.jpg|Sandro BotticelliFile:Robert Campin - L' Annonciation - 1425.jpg|Robert CampinImage:Weyden Ivo.jpg|Rogier van der WeydenImage:Van Eyck - Arnolfini Portrait.jpg|Jan van EyckFile:Portrait of a Man by Jan van Eyck-small.jpg|Jan van EyckFile:The Garden of Earthly Delights by Bosch High Resolution.jpg|Hieronymous BoschFile:Pieter Bruegel the Elder- The Harvesters - Google Art Project.jpg|Pieter BruegelFile:Hans Holbein, the Younger - Sir Thomas More - Google Art Project.jpg|Hans Holbein the YoungerImage:El Greco View of Toledo.jpg|El GrecoThe Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting. Roughly spanning the 14th through the mid-17th century. In Italy artists like Paolo Uccello, Fra Angelico, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Andrea Mantegna, Filippo Lippi, Giorgione, Tintoretto, Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, and Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspective, the study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques.Flemish, Dutch and German painters of the Renaissance such as Hans Holbein the Younger, Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach, Matthias Grünewald, Hieronymous Bosch, and Pieter Brueghel represent a different approach from their Italian colleagues, one that is more realistic and less idealized. Genre painting became a popular idiom amongst such Northern painters as Pieter Brueghel. A new verisimilitude in depicting reality became possible with the adoption of oil painting, whose invention was traditionally, but erroneously, credited to Jan Van Eyck (an important transitional figure who bridges painting in the Middle Ages with painting of the early Renaissance). Unlike the Italians whose work drew heavily from the art of ancient Greece and Rome, the northerners retained a stylistic residue of the sculpture and illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages. These tendencies are also seen in the art of Tudor England, which was heavily influenced by Protestant refugees from the Low Countries.Renaissance painting reflects the revolution of ideas and science (astronomy, geography) that occur in this period, the Reformation, and the invention of the printing press. Dürer, considered one of the greatest of printmakers, states that painters are not mere artisans but thinkers as well. With the development of easel painting in the Renaissance, painting gained independence from architecture. Following centuries dominated by religious imagery, secular subject matter slowly returned to Western painting. Artists included visions of the world around them, or the products of their own imaginations in their paintings. Th
Baroque and Rococo

File:Caravaggio - Bacco adolescente - Google Art Project.jpg|CaravaggioFile:Artemisia Gentileschi - Giuditta decapita Oloferne - Google Art Project.jpg|Artemisia GentileschiImage:Frans Hals 008.jpg|Frans HalsImage:Rubens_-_Judgement_of_Paris.jpg|Peter Paul RubensFile:JohannesVermeer-TheAstronomer(1668).jpg|Jan VermeerImage:The_Nightwatch_by_Rembrandt.jpg|Rembrandt van RijnImage:Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, from Prado in Google Earth.jpg|Diego VelázquezImage:Poussin RapeSabineLouvre.jpg|Nicolas PoussinImage:José de Ribera 054.jpg|José de RiberaImage:Self-portrait_by_Salvator_Rosa.jpg|Salvatore RosaImage:Claude Lorrain 008.jpg|Claude LorrainFile:Anthonis van Dyck 044.jpg|Anthony van DyckFile:La muerte de Jacinto by Giambattista Tiepolo.jpg|Giovanni Battista TiepoloImage:WatteauPierrot.jpg|Antoine WatteauImage:Fragonard, The Swing.jpg|Jean-Honoré FragonardFile:François Boucher, Ruhendes Mädchen (1751, Wallraf-Richartz Museum).jpg|François BoucherImage:Self-portrait_in_a_Straw_Hat_by_Elisabeth-Louise_Vigée-Lebrun.jpg|Élisabeth Vigée-LebrunImage:Pompadour6.jpg|Maurice Quentin de La TourImage:Thomas Gainsborough 008.jpg|Thomas GainsboroughImage:Sir Joshua Reynolds - Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney- The Archers - Google Art Project.jpg|Joshua ReynoldsImage:Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin 029.jpg|Jean-Baptiste-Siméon ChardinImage:William Hogarth by William Hogarth.jpg|William Hogarth Image:Francis Hayman 001.jpg|Francis HaymanImage:Sleepingnymph.jpg|Angelica Kauffman Baroque painting is associated with the Baroque cultural movement, a movement often identified with Absolutism and the Counter Reformation or Catholic Revival; the existence of important Baroque painting in non-absolutist and Protestant states also, however, underscores its popularity, as the style spread throughout Western Europe.Baroque painting is characterized by great drama, rich, deep color, and intense light and dark shadows. Baroque art was meant to evoke emotion and passion instead of the calm rationality that had been prized during the Renaissance. During the period beginning around 1600 and continuing throughout the 17th century, painting is characterized as Baroque. Among the greatest painters of the Baroque are Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Rubens, Velázquez, Poussin, and Jan Vermeer. Caravaggio is an heir of the humanist painting of the High Renaissance. His realistic approach to the human figure, painted directly from life and dramatically spotlit against a dark background, shocked his contemporaries and opened a new chapter in the history of painting.Baroque painting often dramatizes scenes using light effects; this can be seen in works by Rembrandt, Vermeer, Le Nain and La Tour.During the 18th century, Rococo followed as a lighter extension of Baroque, often frivolous and erotic. Rococo developed first in the decorative arts and interior design in France. Louis XV's succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France exemplified by the works of Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. Rococo still maintained the Baroque taste for complex forms and intricate patterns, but by this point, it had begun to integrate a variety of diverse characteristics, including a taste for Oriental designs and asymmetric compositions.The Rococo style spread with French artists and engraved publications. It was readily received in the Catholi
18th and 19th centuries: Neo-classicism, History painting, Romanticism, Impressionism, Post Impressionism, Symbolism

Image:David_-_The_Death_of_Socrates.jpg|Jacques-Louis David 1787Image:Watsonandtheshark-original.jpg|John Singleton Copley 1778Image:Constable DeadhamVale.jpg|John Constable 1802Image:Antoine-Jean Gros - Bonaparte visitant les pestiférés de Jaffa.jpg|Antoine-Jean Gros, 1804Image:Jean-Auguste-Dominique_Ingres_-_Oedipus_and_the_Sphinx_-_Walters_379.jpg|Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres 1814File:El Tres de Mayo, by Francisco de Goya, from Prado thin black margin.jpg|Francisco de Goya 1814Image:Jean Louis Théodore Géricault 002.jpg|Théodore Géricault 1819Image:Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Mondaufgang_am_Meer_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg|Caspar David Friedrich c.1822Image:Karl Brullov - The Last Day of Pompeii - Google Art Project.jpg|Karl Bryullov 1827Image:Eugène Delacroix - La liberté guidant le peuple.jpg|Eugène Delacroix 1830Image:Turner,_J._M._W._-_The_Fighting_Téméraire_tugged_to_her_last_Berth_to_be_broken.jpg|J. M. W. Turner 1838File:Gustave Courbet - A Burial at Ornans - Google Art Project.jpg|Gustave Courbet 1849?1850 File:Hovhannes Aivazovsky - The Ninth Wave - Google Art Project.jpg|Ivan Aivazovsky 1850Image:Albert Bierstadt - A Storm in the Rocky Mountains, Mt. Rosalie - Google Art Project.jpg|Albert Bierstadt 1866image:corot.villedavray.750pix.jpg|Camille Corot c.1867File:Ilia Efimovich Repin (1844-1930) - Volga Boatmen (1870-1873).jpg|Ilya Repin 1870?1873Image:Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant, 1872.jpg|Claude Monet 1872Image:Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette.jpg|Pierre-Auguste Renoir 1876Image:Edgar Germain Hilaire Degas 012.jpg|Edgar Degas 1876Image:Edouard Manet 004.jpg|Édouard Manet 1882Image:Swimming hole.jpg|Thomas Eakins 1884?1885Image:Georges_Seurat_-_Un_dimanche_après-midi_à_l'Île_de_la_Grande_Jatte.jpg|Georges Seurat 1884?1886Image:Valentin Serov - ??????? ? ?????????. ??????? ?.?.?????????? - Google Art Project.jpg|Valentin Serov 1887Image:Van Gogh - Starry Night - Google Art Project.jpg|Vincent van Gogh 1889Image:Albert Pinkham Ryder 003.jpg|Albert Pinkham Ryder 1890Image:Woher kommen wir Wer sind wir Wohin gehen wir.jpg|Paul Gauguin 1897?1898Image:Winslow Homer 005.jpg|Winslow Homer 1899Image:Paul Cézanne 047.jpg|Paul Cézanne 1906After Rococo there arose in the late 18th century, in architecture, and then in painting severe neo-classicism, best represented by such artists as David and his heir Ingres. Ingres' work already contains much of the sensuality, but none of the spontaneity, that was to characterize Romanticism.This movement turned its attention toward landscape and nature as well as the human figure and the supremacy of natural order above mankind's will. There is a pantheist philosophy (see Spinoza and Hegel) within this conception that opposes Enlightenment ideals by seeing mankind's destiny in a more tragic or pessimistic light. The idea that human beings are not above the forces of Nature is in contradiction to Ancient Greek and Renaissance ideals where mankind was above all things and owned his fate. This thinking led romantic artists to depict the sublime, ruined churches, shipwrecks, massacres and madness.By the mid-19th-century painters became liberated from the demands of their patronage to only depict scenes from religion, mythology, portraiture or history. The idea "art for art's sake" began to find expression in the work of painters like Francisco de Goya
20th-century Modern and Contemporary

The heritage of painters like Van Gogh, Cézanne, Gauguin, and Seurat was essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive, landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism. Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone.




Pioneers of the 20th century

Image:Matisse-Open-Window.jpg|Henri Matisse 1905, FauvismImage:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg|Pablo Picasso 1907, Proto-CubismFile:Violin and Candlestick.jpg|Georges Braque 1910, Analytic CubismImage:Henri Rousseau 005.jpg|Henri Rousseau 1910 Primitive SurrealismThe heritage of painters like Van Gogh, Cézanne, Gauguin, and Seurat was essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists including the pre-cubist Georges Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy and Maurice de Vlaminck revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive, landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism ? (as seen in the gallery above). Henri Matisse's second version of The Dance signifies a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting. It reflects Matisse's incipient fascination with primitive art: the intense warm colors against the cool blue-green background and the rhythmical succession of dancing nudes convey the feelings of emotional liberation and hedonism. Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone. With the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon 1907, (see gallery) Picasso dramatically created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. analytic Cubism (see gallery) was jointly developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, Paris, (seen above) from about 1908 through 1912. Analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by synthetic cubism, practised by Braque, Picasso, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp and countless other artists into the 1920s. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, surfaces, collage elements, papier collé and a large variety of merged subject matter.Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were early-20th-century painters, experimenting with freedom of expression through color. The name was given, humorously and not as a compliment, to the group by art critic Louis Vauxcelles. Fauvism was a short-lived and loose grouping of early-20th-century artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the imaginative use of deep color over the representational values. Fauvists made the subject of the painting easy to read, exaggerated perspectives and an interesting prescient prediction of the Fauves was expressed in 1888 by Paul Gauguin to Paul Sérusier,"How do you see these trees? They are yellow. So, put in yellow; this shadow, rather blue, paint it with pure ultramarine; these red leaves? Put in vermilion."The leaders of the movement were Henri Matisse and André Derain ? friendly rivals of a sort, each with his own followers. Ultimately Matisse became the yang to Picasso's yin in the 20th century. Fauvist painters included Albert Marquet, Charles Camoin, Maurice de Vlaminck, Raoul Dufy, Othon Friesz, the Dutch painter Kees van Dongen, and Picasso's partner in Cubism, Georges Braque amongst others.Fauvism, as a movement, had no concrete theories, and was short lived, beginning in 1905 and ending in 1907, they only had three exhibitions. Matisse was seen as the leader of the movement, due to his seniority in age and prior se
Pioneers of Modern art

File:André Derain, 1905, Le séchage des voiles (The Drying Sails), oil on canvas, 82 x 101 cm, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Exhibited at the 1905 Salon d'Automne.jpg|André Derain, 1905, Le séchage des voiles (The Drying Sails), FauvismFile:Matisse-Woman-with-a-Hat.jpg|Henri Matisse, 1905, Woman with a Hat, FauvismFile:Jean Metzinger, 1905-06, Baigneuse, Deux nus dans un jardin exotique (Two Nudes in an Exotic Landscape), oil on canvas, 116 x 88.8 cm.jpg|Jean Metzinger, 1905?06, Baigneuse, Deux nus dans un jardin exotique (Two Nudes in an Exotic Landscape), Divisionism, Proto-CubismImage:Munch death of marat I 1907.jpg|Edvard Munch, Death of Marat I (1907), an example of ExpressionismImage:Gustav Klimt 016.jpg|Gustav Klimt, expressionism, 1907?1908File:Pablo Picasso, 1908, Dryad, oil on canvas, 185 x 108 cm, The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.jpg|Pablo Picasso, 1908, Dryad, Proto-CubismImage:Chagall IandTheVillage.jpg|Marc Chagall 1911, expressionism and surrealismFile:Marcel Duchamp, 1911-12, Nude (Study), Sad Young Man on a Train (Nu -esquisse-, jeune homme triste dans un train), Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.jpg|Marcel Duchamp, 1911-1912, Cubism and DadaImage:Albert Gleizes, l'Homme au Balcon, 1912, oil on canvas, 195.6 x 114.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art.jpg|Albert Gleizes, 1912, l'Homme au Balcon, Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud), CubismImage:Jean Metzinger, 1912, Danseuse au café, Dancer in a café, oil on canvas, 146.1 x 114.3 cm, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York.jpg|Jean Metzinger, 1912, Danseuse au café (Dancer in a café), CubismImage:Deer_in_the_Woods_II.jpg|Franz Marc 1912, Der Blaue ReiterImage:Delaunay ChampDeMars.jpg|Robert Delaunay, 1911, OrphismImage:Francis Picabia, 1912, La Source, The Spring, oil on canvas, 249.6 x 249.3 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Exhibited, 1912 Salon d'Automne, Paris.jpg|Francis Picabia, 1912, La Source (The Spring), Abstract art File:Gino Severini, 1912, Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin, oil on canvas with sequins, .), Museum of Modern Art, New York.jpg|Gino Severini, 1912, Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin, FuturismFile:Kandinsky WWI.jpg|Wassily Kandinsky 1913, birth of abstract artImage:Amadeo Modigliani 036.jpg|Amedeo Modigliani, Portrait of Soutine 1916, example of ExpressionismImage:Leger railway crossing.jpg|Fernand Léger 1919, synthetic Cubism, tubismIn the first two decades of the 20th century and after Cubism, several other important movements emerged; futurism (Balla), abstract art (Kandinsky), Der Blaue Reiter), Bauhaus, (Kandinsky) and (Klee), Orphism, (Robert Delaunay and Franti?ek Kupka), Synchromism (Morgan Russell), De Stijl (Mondrian), Suprematism (Malevich), Constructivism (Tatlin), Dadaism (Duchamp, Picabia, Arp) and Surrealism (De Chirico, André Breton, Miró, Magritte, Dalí, Ernst). Modern painting influenced all the visual arts, from Modernist architecture and design, to avant-garde film, theatre and modern dance and became an experimental laboratory for the expression of visual experience, from photography and concrete poetry to advertising art and fashion. Van Gogh's painting exerted great influence upon 20th-century Expressionism, as can be seen in the work of the Fauves, Die Brücke (a group led by German painter Ernst Kirchner), and the Expressionism of Edvard Munch, Egon Schiele, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine and others..Wassily Kandinsky a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist, one of the most famous 20th-century artists is generally considered the first important painter of modern abstract art. As an early Modernist, in search of new modes of visual expression, and spiritual expression, he theorized as did contemporary occultists and theosophists, that pure visual abstraction had corollary vibrations with sound and music. They posited that pure abstraction could expre
Pioneers of abstraction

File:Mondrian gray tree.jpg|Piet Mondrian, 1912, early De StijlImage:Malevici06.jpg|Kasimir Malevich 1916, SuprematismImage:Theo van Doesburg Composition VII (the three graces).jpg|Theo van Doesburg 1917, De Stijl, Neo-Plasticism Image:MacDonaldWright_AirplaneSynchYelOrng.jpg|Stanton MacDonald-Wright 1920, SynchromismPiet Mondrian's art was also related to his spiritual and philosophical studies. In 1908 he became interested in the theosophical movement launched by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in the late 19th century. Blavatsky believed that it was possible to attain a knowledge of nature more profound than that provided by empirical means, and much of Mondrian's work for the rest of his life was inspired by his search for that spiritual knowledge.De Stijl also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917. The term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands.De Stijl is also the name of a journal that was published by the Dutch painter, designer, writer, and critic Theo van Doesburg propagating the group's theories. Next to van Doesburg, the group's principal members were the painters Piet Mondrian, Vilmos Huszár, and Bart van der Leck, and the architects Gerrit Rietveld, Robert van 't Hoff, and J.J.P. Oud. The artistic philosophy that formed a basis for the group's work is known as neoplasticism ? the new plastic art (or Nieuwe Beelding in Dutch).Proponents of De Stijl sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order. They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour; they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal directions, and used only primary colors along with black and white. Indeed, according to the Tate Gallery's online article on neoplasticism, Mondrian himself sets forth these delimitations in his essay 'Neo-Plasticism in Pictorial Art'. He writes, "... this new plastic idea will ignore the particulars of appearance, that is to say, natural form and colour. On the contrary, it should find its expression in the abstraction of form and colour, that is to say, in the straight line and the clearly defined primary colour." The Tate article further summarizes that this art allows "only primary colours and non-colours, only squares and rectangles, only straight and horizontal or vertical line." The Guggenheim Museum's online article on De Stijl summarizes these traits in similar terms: "It De Stijl was posited on the fundamental principle of the geometry of the straight line, the square, and the rectangle, combined with a strong asymmetricality; the predominant use of pure primary colors with black and white; and the relationship between positive and negative elements in an arrangement of non-objective forms and lines."De Stijl movement was influenced by Cubist painting as well as by the mysticism and the ideas about "ideal" geometric forms (such as the "perfect straight line") in the neoplatonic philosophy of mathematician M.H.J. Schoenmaekers. The works of De Stijl would influence the Bauhaus style and the international style of architecture as well as clothing and interior design. However, it did not follow the general gu
Dada and Surrealism

File:291-No1Cover.jpg|Francis Picabia, "Ici, c'est ici Stieglitz, foi et amour", cover of 291, No1, 1915, early DadaImage:Picabia Machine Turn.jpg|Francis Picabia 1916, DadaImage:DasUndbild.jpg|Kurt Schwitters, 1919, painted collage, DadaImage:Pedestal Table in the Studio.jpg|André Masson, 1922, early SurrealismSalvador Dalí 1927, Surrealism (super-realism)Marcel Duchamp, came to international prominence in the wake of his notorious success at the New York City Armory Show in 1913, (soon after he denounced artmaking for chess). After Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase became the international cause celebre at the 1913 Armory show in New York he created the The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, Large Glass. The Large Glass pushed the art of painting to radical new limits being part painting, part collage, part construction. Duchamp became closely associated with the Dada movement that began in neutral Zurich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature (poetry, art manifestoes, art theory), theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politic through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Francis Picabia (see above), Man Ray, Kurt Schwitters, Tristan Tzara, Hans Richter, Jean Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, along with Duchamp and many others are associated with the Dadaist movement. Duchamp and several Dadaists are also associated with Surrealism, the movement that dominated European painting in the 1920s and 1930s.In 1924 André Breton published the Surrealist Manifesto. The Surrealist movement in painting became synonymous with the avant-garde and which featured artists whose works varied from the abstract to the super-realist. With works on paper like Machine Turn Quickly, (above) Francis Picabia continued his involvement in the Dada movement through 1919 in Zurich and Paris, before breaking away from it after developing an interest in Surrealist art. Yves Tanguy, René Magritte and Salvador Dalí are particularly known for their realistic depictions of dream imagery and fantastic manifestations of the imagination. Joan Miró's The Tilled Field of 1923?1924 verges on abstraction, this early painting of a complex of objects and figures, and arrangements of sexually active characters; was Miró's first Surrealist masterpiece. The more abstract Joan Miró, Jean Arp, André Masson, and Max Ernst were very influential, especially in the United States during the 1940s.Throughout the 1930s, Surrealism continued to become more visible to the public at large. A Surrealist group developed in Britain and, according to Breton, their 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition was a high water mark of the period and became the model for international exhibitions. Surrealist groups in Japan, and especially in Latin America, the Caribbean and in Mexico produced innovative and original works.Dalí and Magritte created some of the most widely recognized images of the movement. The 1928/1929 painting This Is Not A Pipe, by Magritte is the subject of a Michel Foucault 1973 book, This is not a Pipe (English edition, 1991), that discusses the painting and its paradox. Dalí joined the group in 1929, and participated in the rapid establishment of the visual style between 1930 and
Between the Wars

File:Egon Schiele - Self-Portrait with Physalis - Google Art Project.jpg|Egon Schiele, Symbolism and Expressionism 1912File:Kirchner 1913 Street, Berlin.jpg|Ernst Kirchner Die Brücke 1913Image:Amadeo Modigliani 012.jpg|Amedeo Modigliani Symbolism and Expressionism 1917Image:Davis steeple street.jpg|Stuart Davis American Modernism 1922Der Blaue Reiter was a German movement lasting from 1911 to 1914, fundamental to Expressionism, along with Die Brücke which was founded the previous decade in 1905 and was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. Founding members of Die Brücke were Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Later members included Max Pechstein, Otto Mueller and others. The group was one of the seminal ones, which in due course had a major impact on the evolution of modern art in the 20th century and created the style of Expressionism.Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, August Macke, Alexej von Jawlensky, whose psychically expressive painting of the Russian dancer Portrait of Alexander Sakharoff, 1909 is in the gallery above, Marianne von Werefkin, Lyonel Feininger and others founded the Der Blaue Reiter group in response to the rejection of Kandinsky's painting Last Judgement from an exhibition. Der Blaue Reiter lacked a central artistic manifesto, but was centered around Kandinsky and Marc. Artists Gabriele Münter and Paul Klee were also involved.The name of the movement comes from a painting by Kandinsky created in 1903 (see illustration). It is also claimed that the name could have derived from Marc's enthusiasm for horses and Kandinsky's love of the colour blue. For Kandinsky, blue is the colour of spirituality: the darker the blue, the more it awakens human desire for the eternal.In the USA during the period between World War I and World War II painters tended to go to Europe for recognition. Artists like Marsden Hartley, Patrick Henry Bruce, Gerald Murphy and Stuart Davis, created reputations abroad. In New York City, Albert Pinkham Ryder and Ralph Blakelock were influential and important figures in advanced American painting between 1900 and 1920. During the 1920s photographer Alfred Stieglitz exhibited Georgia O'Keeffe, Arthur Dove, Alfred Henry Maurer, Charles Demuth, John Marin and other artists including European Masters Henri Matisse, Auguste Rodin, Henri Rousseau, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso, at his gallery the 291.




Social consciousness

Image:Republican Automatons George Grosz 1920.jpg|George Grosz, 1920, Neue SachlichkeitImage:People-of-Chilmark-Benton-1920-lrg.jpg|Thomas Hart Benton 1920, RegionalismImage:Bellows George Dempsey and Firpo 1924.jpg|George Bellows, 1924, American realismImage:Demuth_Charles_Spring_1921.jpg|Charles Demuth Spring, 1921, American Precisionism (proto Pop Art)During the 1920s and the 1930s and the Great Depression, Surrealism, late Cubism, the Bauhaus, De Stijl, Dada, German Expressionism, Expressionism, and modernist and masterful color painters like Henri Matisse and Pierre Bonnard characterized the European art scene. In Germany Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz and others politicized their paintings, foreshadowing the coming of World War II. While in America American Scene painting and the social realism and regionalism movements that contained both political and social commentary dominated the art world. Artists like Ben Shahn, Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood, George Tooker, John Steuart Curry, Reginald Marsh, and others became prominent. In Latin America besides the Uruguayan painter Joaquín Torres García and Rufino Tamayo from Mexico, the muralist movement with Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros, José Orozco, Pedro Nel Gómez and Santiago Martinez Delgado and the Symbolist paintings by Frida Kahlo began a renaissance of the arts for the region, with a use of color and historic, and political messages. Frida Kahlo's Symbolist works also relate strongly to Surrealism and to the Magic Realism movement in literature. The psychological drama in many of Kahlo's self portraits (above) underscore the vitality and relevance of her paintings to artists in the 21st century.American Gothic is a painting by Grant Wood from 1930. Portraying a pitchfork-holding farmer and a younger woman in front of a house of Carpenter Gothic style, it is one of the most familiar images in 20th-century American art. Art critics had favorable opinions about the painting, like Gertrude Stein and Christopher Morley, they assumed the painting was meant to be a satire of rural small-town life. It was thus seen as part of the trend towards increasingly critical depictions of rural America, along the lines of Sherwood Anderson's 1919 Winesburg, Ohio, Sinclair Lewis' 1920 Main Street, and Carl Van Vechten's The Tattooed Countess in literature. However, with the onset of the Great Depression, the painting came to be seen as a depiction of steadfast American pioneer spirit.Diego Rivera is perhaps best known by the public world for his 1933 mural, "Man at the Crossroads", in the lobby of the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center. When his patron Nelson Rockefeller discovered that the mural included a portrait of Vladimir Lenin and other communist imagery, he fired Rivera, and the unfinished work was eventually destroyed by Rockefeller's staff. The film Cradle Will Rock includes a dramatization of the controversy. Frida Kahlo (Rivera's wife's) works are often characterized by their stark portrayals of pain. Of her 143 paintings 55 are self-portraits, which frequently incorporate symbolic portrayals of her physical and psychological wounds. Kahlo was deeply influenced by indigenous Mexican culture, which is apparent in her paintings' bright colors and dramatic symbolism. Christian and Jewish themes are often depicted in her work as well; she combined elements of the classic religious Mexican tradition?which were often bloody and violent?with surrealist renderings. While her paintings are not overtly Christian ? she was, after all, an avowed communist ? they certainly contain elements of the macabre Mexican Christian style of
World conflict

Image:Max Beckmann's 'Self-portrait with Horn', 1938-1940.jpg|Max Beckmann 1938?1940, ExpressionismImage:Kandinsky 1939 Composition-X.png|Wassily Kandinsky Composition X 1939, Geometric abstractionImage:master-bill.jpg|Arshile Gorky 1929?1936, pre abstract expressionismFile:Thomas Hart Benton - Cut the Line.jpg|Thomas Hart Benton, Cut the Line, 1944, American Scene PaintingDuring the 1930s radical leftist politics characterized many of the artists connected to Surrealism, including Pablo Picasso. On 26 April 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, the Basque town of Gernika was the scene of the "Bombing of Gernika" by the Condor Legion of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe. The Germans were attacking to support the efforts of Francisco Franco to overthrow the Basque Government and the Spanish Republican government. The town was devastated, though the Biscayan assembly and the Oak of Gernika survived. Pablo Picasso painted his mural sized Guernica to commemorate the horrors of the bombing.In its final form, Guernica is an immense black and white, tall and wide mural painted in oil. The mural presents a scene of death, violence, brutality, suffering, and helplessness without portraying their immediate causes. The choice to paint in black and white contrasts with the intensity of the scene depicted and invokes the immediacy of a newspaper photograph.Picasso painted the mural sized painting called Guernica in protest of the bombing. The painting was first exhibited in Paris in 1937, then Scandinavia, then London in 1938 and finally in 1939 at Picasso's request the painting was sent to the United States in an extended loan (for safekeeping) at MoMA. The painting went on a tour of museums throughout the USA until its final return to the Museum of Modern Art in New York City where it was exhibited for nearly thirty years. Finally in accord with Pablo Picasso's wish to give the painting to the people of Spain as a gift, it was sent to Spain in 1981.During the Great Depression of the 1930s, through the years of World War II American art was characterized by Social Realism and American Scene Painting (as seen above) in the work of Grant Wood, Edward Hopper, Ben Shahn, Thomas Hart Benton, and several others. Nighthawks (1942) is a painting by Edward Hopper that portrays people sitting in a downtown diner late at night. It is not only Hopper's most famous painting, but one of the most recognizable in American art. It is currently in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. The scene was inspired by a diner (since demolished) in Greenwich Village, Hopper's home neighborhood in Manhattan. Hopper began painting it immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor. After this event there was a large feeling of gloominess over the country, a feeling that is portrayed in the painting. The urban street is empty outside the diner, and inside none of the three patrons is apparently looking or talking to the others but instead is lost in their own thoughts. This portrayal of modern urban life as empty or lonely is a common theme throughout Hopper's work.The Dynamic for artists in Europe during the 1930s deteriorated rapidly as the Nazi's power in Germany and across Eastern Europe increased. The climate became so hostile for artists and art associated with Modernism and abstraction that
Towards mid-century

Image:Frida Kahlo (self portrait).jpg|Frida Kahlo 1940, Latin American SymbolismFile:Office in a small city hopper 1953.jpg|Edward Hopper, 1953, American Scene paintingImage:Freud, girl-white-dog.jpg|Lucian Freud 1951 ? 1952, British Figurative paintingImage:'Natura Morta', oil on canvas painting by Giorgio Morandi, 1956, private collection.jpg|Giorgio Morandi, 1956, Still LifeThe 1940s in New York City heralded the triumph of American abstract expressionism, a modernist movement that combined lessons learned from Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Surrealism, Joan Miró, Cubism, Fauvism, and early Modernism via great teachers in America like Hans Hofmann and John D. Graham. American artists benefited from the presence of Piet Mondrian, Fernand Léger, Max Ernst and the André Breton group, Pierre Matisse's gallery, and Peggy Guggenheim's gallery The Art of This Century, as well as other factors. The figurative work of Francis Bacon, Frida Kahlo, Edward Hopper, Lucian Freud, Andrew Wyeth and others served as a kind of alternative to abstract expressionism.Post-Second World War American painting called Abstract expressionism included artists like Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still, Franz Kline, Adolph Gottlieb, Mark Tobey, Barnett Newman, James Brooks, Philip Guston, Robert Motherwell, Conrad Marca-Relli, Jack Tworkov, William Baziotes, Richard Pousette-Dart, Ad Reinhardt, Hedda Sterne, Jimmy Ernst, Esteban Vicente, Bradley Walker Tomlin, and Theodoros Stamos, among others. American Abstract expressionism got its name in 1946 from the art critic Robert Coates. It is seen as combining the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as futurism, the Bauhaus and synthetic cubism. Abstract expressionism, action painting, and Color Field painting are synonymous with the New York School.Technically Surrealism was an important predecessor for abstract expressionism with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey, especially his "white writing" canvases, which, though generally not large in scale, anticipate the "all over" look of Pollock's drip paintings.




Abstract expressionism

Image:Kooning_woman_v.jpg|Willem de Kooning 1952?1953 Figurative abstract expressionismJackson Pollock, ''Autumn Rhythm'', 1950, abstract expressionismImage:Kline no2.jpg|Franz Kline 1954 action paintingImage:'Canticle', casein on paper by Mark Tobey, 1954.jpg|Mark Tobey, 1954, Canticle, abstract expressionism, calligraphy, Northwest SchoolFile:Voice of Fire photo.jpg|Barnett Newman, Voice of Fire, 1967, Color Field ? abstract expressionism Additionally, Abstract expressionism has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, rather nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working (mostly) in New York who had quite different styles, and even applied to work which is not especially abstract nor expressionist. Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different both technically and aesthetically, to the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning. As seen above in the gallery Woman V is one of a series of six paintings made by de Kooning between 1950 and 1953 that depict a three-quarter-length female figure. He began the first of these paintings, Woman I collection: The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, in June 1950, repeatedly changing and painting out the image until January or February 1952, when the painting was abandoned unfinished. The art historian Meyer Schapiro saw the painting in de Kooning's studio soon afterwards and encouraged the artist to persist. De Kooning's response was to begin three other paintings on the same theme; Woman II collection: The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, Woman III, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Woman IV, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. During the summer of 1952, spent at East Hampton, de Kooning further explored the theme through drawings and pastels. He may have finished work on Woman I by the end of June, or possibly as late as November 1952, and probably the other three women pictures were concluded at much the same time. The Woman series are decidedly figurative paintings. Another important artist is Franz Kline, as demonstrated by his painting High Street, 1950 (see gallery) as with Jackson Pollock and other Abstract Expressionists, was labelled an "action painter" because of his seemingly spontaneous and intense style, focusing less, or not at all, on figures or imagery, but on the actual brush strokes and use of canvas.Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, (see above), Adolph Gottlieb, and the serenely shimmering blocks of color in Mark Rothko's work (which is not what would usually be called expressionist and which Rothko denied was abstract), are classified as abstract expressionists, albeit from what Clement Greenberg termed the Color Field direction of abstract expressionism. Both Hans Hofmann (see gallery) and Robert Motherwell (gallery) can be comfortably described as practitioners of action painting and Color Field painting.Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or of the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists works, most of these paintings involved careful planning, especially since their large size demanded it. An exception might be the drip paintin
Pop art

Image:Jasper Johns's 'Flag', Encaustic, oil and collage on fabric mounted on plywood,1954-55.jpg|Jasper Johns 1954?55 pre-Pop ArtFile:Marilyndiptych.jpg|Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych 1962, Pop ArtImage:Roy Lichtenstein Whaam.jpg|Roy Lichtenstein, Whaam, 1963 Pop ArtImage:WayneThiebaudThreeMachines.jpg|Wayne Thiebaud, Three Machines, 1963, Pop ArtEarlier in England in 1956 the term Pop Art was used by Lawrence Alloway for paintings that celebrated consumerism of the post World War II era. This movement rejected abstract expressionism and its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior, in favor of art which depicted, and often celebrated material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass production age. Pop art merges popular and mass culture with fine art, while injecting humor, irony, and recognizable imagery and content into the mix. In October 1962 the Sidney Janis Gallery mounted The New Realists the first major pop art group exhibition in an uptown art gallery in New York City. Sidney Janis mounted the exhibition in a 57th Street storefront near his gallery at 15 E. 57th Street. The show sent shockwaves through the New York School and reverberated worldwide. Earlier in the fall of 1962 an historically important and ground-breaking New Painting of Common Objects exhibition of pop art, curated by Walter Hopps at the Pasadena Art Museum sent shock waves across the Western United States.While in the downtown scene in New York City's East Village 10th Street galleries artists were formulating an American version of Pop Art. Claes Oldenburg had his storefront and made painted objects, and the Green Gallery on 57th Street began to show Tom Wesselmann and James Rosenquist. Later Leo Castelli exhibited other American artists including the bulk of the careers of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein and his use of Benday dots, a technique used in commercial reproduction. There is a connection between the radical works of Duchamp, and Man Ray, the rebellious Dadaists ? with a sense of humor; and pop artists like Alex Katz (who became known for his parody's of portrait photography and suburban life), Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and the others.While throughout the 20th century many painters continued to practice landscape and figurative painting with contemporary subjects and solid technique, like Milton Avery, John D. Graham, Fairfield Porter, Edward Hopper, Balthus, Francis Bacon, Nicolas de Staël, Andrew Wyeth, Lucian Freud, Frank Auerbach, Philip Pearlstein, David Park, Nathan Oliveira, David Hockney, Malcolm Morley, Richard Estes, Ralph Goings, Audrey Flack, Chuck Close, Susan Rothenberg, Eric Fischl, Vija Celmins and Richard Diebenkorn.




Figurative, Landscape, Still-Life, Seascape, and Realism

Edward Hopper, 1943, ''Summertime'', CityscapeFile:Edward Hopper The El Station.jpg|Edward Hopper, The El Station (1908) CityscapeImage:Balthusnude.jpg|Balthus, 1951, figurative expressionismFile:Head VI (1949).JPG|Francis Bacon, Head VI, 1949, British expressionismImage:Milton Avery - 'Green Sea', oil on canvas 1958, University of Kentucky Art Museum (Lexington, Kentucky).jpg|Milton Avery, 1958, seascapeDuring the 1930s through the 1960s abstract painting in America and Europe evolved into movements such as abstract expressionism, Color Field painting, Post painterly abstraction, Op art, hard-edge painting, Minimal art, shaped canvas painting, and Lyrical Abstraction. Other artists reacted as a response to the tendency toward abstraction, allowing figurative imagery to continue through various new contexts like the Bay Area Figurative Movement in the 1950s and new forms of expressionism from the 1940s through the 1960s. In Italy during this time, Giorgio Morandi was the foremost still life painter, exploring a wide variety of approaches to depicting everyday bottles and kitchen implements. Throughout the 20th century many painters practiced Realism and used expressive imagery; practicing landscape and figurative painting with contemporary subjects and solid technique, and unique expressivity like still-life painter Giorgio Morandi, Milton Avery, John D. Graham, Fairfield Porter, Edward Hopper, Andrew Wyeth, Balthus, Francis Bacon, Leon Kossoff, Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud, Philip Pearlstein, Willem de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, Grace Hartigan, Robert De Niro, Sr., Elaine de Kooning and others. Along with Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Pierre Bonnard, Georges Braque, and other 20th-century masters. In particular Milton Avery through his use of color and his interest in seascape and landscape paintings connected with the Color field aspect of Abstract expressionism as manifested by Adolph Gottlieb and Mark Rothko as well as the lessons American painters took from the work of Henri Matisse.Head IV, 1949 (see above) is a painting by the Irish born artist Francis Bacon and is an example of Post World War II European Expressionism. The work shows a distorted version of the Portrait of Innocent X painted by the Spanish artist Diego Velázquez in 1650. The work is one of a series of variants of the Velázquez painting which Bacon executed throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, over a total of forty-five works. When asked why he was compelled to revisit the subject so often, Bacon replied that he had nothing against the Popes, that he merely "wanted an excuse to use these colours, and you can't give ordinary clothes that purple colour without getting into a sort of false fauve manner." The Pope in this version seethes with anger and aggression, and the dark colors give the image a grotesque and nightmarish appearance. The pleated curtains of the backdrop are rendered transparent, and seem to fall through the Pope's face.Italian painter Giorgio Morandi was an important 20th-century early pioneer of Minimalism. Born in Bologna, Italy in 1890, throughout his career, Morandi concentrated almost exclusively on still lives and landscapes, except for a few self-portraits. With great sensitivity to tone, color, and compositional balance, he would depict the same familiar bottles and vases again and again in paintings notable for their simplicity of execution. Morandi executed 133 etchings, a significant body of work in its own right, and his drawings and watercolors often approach abstraction in their economy of means. Through his simple and
Art brut, New Realism, Bay Area Figurative Movement, neo-Dada, photorealism

Image:20070624 Dubuffet - Court les rues.JPG|Jean Dubuffet, 1962, Art BrutImage:Cityscape I 360.jpg|Richard Diebenkorn 1963, Bay Area Figurative MovementJohn Baeder, PhotorealismImage:Richard Estes.jpg|Richard Estes, 1968, PhotorealismImage:Fairfield Porter's painting 'Under the Elms', 1971 - 1972.jpg|Fairfield Porter 1971?1972, East Coast Figurative paintingDuring the 1950s and 1960s as abstract painting in America and Europe evolved into movements such as Color Field painting, post-painterly abstraction, op art, hard-edge painting, minimal art, shaped canvas painting, Lyrical Abstraction, and the continuation of Abstract expressionism. Other artists reacted as a response to the tendency toward abstraction with art brut, fluxus, neo-Dada, New Realism, allowing imagery to re-emerge through various new contexts like pop art, the Bay Area Figurative Movement and later in the 1970s Neo-expressionism. The Bay Area Figurative Movement of whom David Park, Elmer Bischoff, Nathan Oliveira and Richard Diebenkorn whose painting Cityscape 1, 1963 is a typical example (see above) were influential members flourished during the 1950s and 1960s in California. Although throughout the 20th century painters continued to practice Realism and use imagery, practicing landscape and figurative painting with contemporary subjects and solid technique, and unique expressivity like Milton Avery, Edward Hopper, Jean Dubuffet, Francis Bacon, Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud, Philip Pearlstein, and others. Younger painters practiced the use of imagery in new and radical ways. Yves Klein, Martial Raysse, Niki de Saint Phalle, Wolf Vostell, David Hockney, Alex Katz, Malcolm Morley, Ralph Goings, Audrey Flack, Richard Estes, Chuck Close, Susan Rothenberg, Eric Fischl, John Baeder and Vija Celmins were a few who became prominent between the 1960s and the 1980s. Fairfield Porter (see above) was largely self-taught, and produced representational work in the midst of the Abstract Expressionist movement. His subjects were primarily landscapes, domestic interiors and portraits of family, friends and fellow artists, many of them affiliated with the New York School of writers, including John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, and James Schuyler. Many of his paintings were set in or around the family summer house on Great Spruce Head Island, Maine.Also during the 1960s and 1970s, there was a reaction against painting. Critics like Douglas Crimp viewed the work of artists like Ad Reinhardt, and declared the 'death of painting'. Artists began to practice new ways of making art. New movements gained prominence some of which are: Postminimalism, Earth art, video art, installation art, arte povera, performance art, body art, fluxus, mail art, the situationists and conceptual art among others.Neo-Dada is also a movement that started 1n the 1950s and 1960s and was related to Abstract expressionism only with imagery. Featuring the emergence of combined manufactured items, with artist materials, moving away from previous conventions of painting. This trend in art is exemplified by the work of Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, whose "combines" in the 1950s were forerunners of Pop Art and Installation art, and made use of the assemblage of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photography. Robert Rauschenberg, (see untitled combine, 1963, above), Jasper Johns, Larry Rivers, John Chamberlain, Claes Oldenburg, George Segal, Jim Dine, and Edward Kienholz among others were important pioneers of both abstraction and Pop Art; creating new conventions of art-making; they made acceptable in serious contemporary art circles the radical inclusion of unlikely materials as parts of their works of art.




New abstraction from the 1950s through the 1980s

Image: Meschers EK 42 (8355).jpg|Ellsworth Kelly, 1951, Hard-edge paintingImage:IKB 191.jpg|Yves Klein, 1962, Monochrome paintingImage:Josef Albers's painting 'Homage to the Square', 1965.jpg|Josef Albers 1965, Geometric abstractionImage:Riley, Cataract 3.jpg|Bridget Riley, 1967, Op artColor Field painting clearly pointed toward a new direction in American painting, away from abstract expressionism. Color Field painting is related to post-painterly abstraction, suprematism, abstract expressionism, hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction.During the 1960s and 1970s abstract painting continued to develop in America through varied styles. Geometric abstraction, Op art, hard-edge painting, Color Field painting and minimal painting, were some interrelated directions for advanced abstract painting as well as some other new movements. Morris Louis was an important pioneer in advanced Color Field painting, his work can serve as a bridge between abstract expressionism, Color Field painting, and minimal art. Two influential teachers Josef Albers and Hans Hofmann introduced a new generation of American artists to their advanced theories of color and space. Josef Albers is best remembered for his work as an Geometric abstractionist painter and theorist. Most famous of all are the hundreds of paintings and prints that make up the series Homage to the Square, (see gallery). In this rigorous series, begun in 1949, Albers explored chromatic interactions with flat colored squares arranged concentrically on the canvas. Albers' theories on art and education were formative for the next generation of artists. His own paintings form the foundation of both hard-edge painting and Op art.Josef Albers, Hans Hofmann, Ilya Bolotowsky, Burgoyne Diller, Victor Vasarely, Bridget Riley, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Frank Stella, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Ellsworth Kelly, Barnett Newman, Larry Poons, Ronald Davis, Larry Zox, Al Held and some others like Mino Argento, are artists closely associated with Geometric abstraction, Op art, Color Field painting, and in the case of Hofmann and Newman Abstract expressionism as well.In 1965, an exhibition called The Responsive Eye, curated by William C. Seitz, was held at the Museum of Modern Art, in New York City. The works shown were wide ranging, encompassing the Minimalism of Frank Stella, the Op art of Larry Poons, the work of Alexander Liberman, alongside the masters of the Op Art movement: Victor Vasarely, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Bridget Riley and others. The exhibition focused on the perceptual aspects of art, which result both from the illusion of movement and the interaction of color relationships. Op art, also known as optical art, is a style present in some paintings and other works of art that use optical illusions. Op art is also closely akin to geometric abstraction and hard-edge painting. Although sometimes the term used for it is perceptual abstraction.Op art is a method of painting concerning the interaction between illusion and picture plane, between understanding and seeing. Op art works are abstract, with many of the better known pieces made in only black and white. When the viewer looks at them, the impression is given of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibration, patterns, or alternatively, of swelling or warping.Color Field painting sought to rid art of superfluous rhetoric. Artists like Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Jules Olitski, Kenneth Noland, Helen Frankenthaler, John Hoyland, Larry Zox, and others often used greatly reduced references to nature, and they painted with a highly articulated and psychological use of color. In general these artists eliminated recognizable im
Washington Color School, Shaped Canvas, Abstract Illusionism, Lyrical Abstraction

Image:BlackGreyBeat.jpg|Gene Davis 1964, Washington Color SchoolImage:Frank Stella's 'Harran II', 1967.jpg|Frank Stella 1967, Shaped CanvasImage:P0055av_Ring.jpg|Ronald Davis 1968, Abstract IllusionismImage:Forwilliamblake.jpg|Ronnie Landfield, 1968, Lyrical AbstractionAnother related movement of the late 1960s, Lyrical Abstraction (the term being coined by Larry Aldrich, the founder of the Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield Connecticut), encompassed what Aldrich said he saw in the studios of many artists at that time. Lyrical Abstraction, conceptual art, postminimalism, Earth art, video, performance art, installation art, along with the continuation of fluxus, abstract expressionism, Color Field painting, hard-edge painting, minimal art, op art, pop art, photorealism and New Realism extended the boundaries of contemporary art in the mid-1960s through the 1970s. Lyrical Abstraction is a type of freewheeling abstract painting that emerged in the mid-1960s when abstract painters returned to various forms of painterly, pictorial, expressionism with a predominate focus on process, gestalt and repetitive compositional strategies in general.Lyrical Abstraction shares similarities with color field painting and abstract expressionism, Lyrical Abstraction as exemplified by the 1968 Ronnie Landfield painting For William Blake, (above) especially in the freewheeling usage of paint ? texture and surface. Direct drawing, calligraphic use of line, the effects of brushed, splattered, stained, squeegeed, poured, and splashed paint superficially resemble the effects seen in abstract expressionism and color field painting. However, the styles are markedly different. Setting it apart from abstract expressionism and action painting of the 1940s and 1950s is the approach to composition and drama. As seen in action painting there is an emphasis on brushstrokes, high compositional drama, dynamic compositional tension. While in Lyrical Abstraction there is a sense of compositional randomness, all over composition, low key and relaxed compositional drama and an emphasis on process, repetition, and an all over sensibility.,




Hard-edge painting, minimalism, postminimalism, monochrome painting

Image:Untitled painting by Larry Poons, ca.1964.jpg|Larry Poons, ca. 1964, Hard-edge paintingImage:Robert Mangold's acrylic and pencil 'X Within X Orange', 1981.jpg|Robert Mangold 1981, MinimalismImage:'Red Canvas' by Richard Tuttle, 1967, Corcoran Gallery of Art.jpg|Richard Tuttle, 1967, PostminimalismImage: The Dylan Painting.jpg|Brice Marden, 1966/1986, Monochrome paintingAgnes Martin, Robert Mangold (see above), Brice Marden, Jo Baer, Robert Ryman, Richard Tuttle, Neil Williams, David Novros, Paul Mogenson, are examples of artists associated with Minimalism and (exceptions of Martin, Baer and Marden) the use of the shaped canvas also during the period beginning in the early 1960s. Many Geometric abstract artists, minimalists, and hard-edge painters elected to use the edges of the image to define the shape of the painting rather than accepting the rectangular format. In fact, the use of the shaped canvas is primarily associated with paintings of the 1960s and 1970s that are coolly abstract, formalistic, geometrical, objective, rationalistic, clean-lined, brashly sharp-edged, or minimalist in character. The Bykert Gallery, and the Park Place Gallery were important showcases for Minimalism and shaped canvas painting in New York City during the 1960s.During the 1960s and 1970s artists such as Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb, Phillip Guston, Lee Krasner, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Richard Diebenkorn, Josef Albers, Elmer Bischoff, Agnes Martin, Al Held, Sam Francis, Ellsworth Kelly, Morris Louis, Helen Frankenthaler, Gene Davis, Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Joan Mitchell, Friedel Dzubas, and younger artists like Brice Marden, Robert Mangold, Sam Gilliam, John Hoyland, Sean Scully, Pat Steir, Elizabeth Murray, Larry Poons, Walter Darby Bannard, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Ronald Davis, Dan Christensen, Joan Snyder, Ross Bleckner, Archie Rand, Susan Crile, and dozens of others produced a wide variety of paintings.During the 1960s and 1970s, there was a reaction against abstract painting. Some critics viewed the work of artists like Ad Reinhardt, and declared the 'death of painting'. Artists began to practice new ways of making art. New movements gained prominence some of which are: postminimalism, Earth art, video art, installation art, arte povera, performance art, body art, fluxus, happening, mail art, the situationists and conceptual art among others.However still other important innovations in abstract painting took place during the 1960s and the 1970s characterized by monochrome painting and hard-edge painting inspired by Ad Reinhardt, Barnett Newman, Milton Resnick, and Ellsworth Kelly. Artists as diverse as Agnes Martin, Al Held, Larry Zox, Frank Stella, Larry Poons, Brice Marden and others explored the power of simplification. The convergence of Color Field painting, minimal art, hard-edge painting, Lyrical Abstraction, and postminimalism blurred the distinction between movements that became more apparent in the 1980s and 1990s. The neo-expressionism movement is related to earlier developments in abstract expressionism, neo-Dada, Lyrical Abstraction and postminimal painting.




Neo Expressionism

Image:gustonphilip.jpg|Philip Guston 1972, pre-Neo-expressionismImage:Rothhorse2.jpg|Susan Rothenberg 1979, Neo-expressionismImage:Badboy.jpg|Eric Fischl 1981, Figurative Neo-expressionismImage:Untitled acrylic and mixed media on canvas by --Jean-Michel Basquiat--, 1984.jpg|Jean-Michel Basquiat, 1984, Neo-expressionismIn the late 1960s the abstract expressionist painter Philip Guston helped to lead a transition from abstract expressionism to Neo-expressionism in painting, abandoning the so-called "pure abstraction" of abstract expressionism in favor of more cartoonish renderings of various personal symbols and objects. These works were inspirational to a new generation of painters interested in a revival of expressive imagery. His painting Painting, Smoking, Eating 1973, seen above in the gallery is an example of Guston's final and conclusive return to representation.In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was also a return to painting that occurred almost simultaneously in Italy, Germany, France and Britain. These movements were called Transavantguardia, Neue Wilde, Figuration Libre, Neo-expressionism, the school of London, and in the late 1980s the Stuckists respectively. These painting were characterized by large formats, free expressive mark making, figuration, myth and imagination. All work in this genre came to be labeled neo-expressionism. Critical reaction was divided. Some critics regarded it as driven by profit motivations by large commercial galleries. This type of art continues in popularity into the 21st century, even after the art crash of the late 1980s. Anselm Kiefer is a leading figure in European Neo-expressionism by the 1980s, (see To the Unknown Painter 1983, in the gallery above) Kiefer's themes widened from a focus on Germany's role in civilization to the fate of art and culture in general. His work became more sculptural and involves not only national identity and collective memory, but also occult symbolism, theology and mysticism. The theme of all the work is the trauma experienced by entire societies, and the continual rebirth and renewal in life.During the late 1970s in the United States painters who began working with invigorated surfaces and who returned to imagery like Susan Rothenberg gained in popularity, especially as seen above in paintings like Horse 2, 1979. During the 1980s American artists like Eric Fischl, (see Bad Boy, 1981, above), David Salle, Jean-Michel Basquiat (who began as a graffiti artist), Julian Schnabel, and Keith Haring, and Italian painters like Mimmo Paladino, Sandro Chia, and Enzo Cucchi, among others defined the idea of Neo-expressionism in America.Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that became popular in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. It developed in Europe as a reaction against the conceptual and minimalistic art of the 1960s and 1970s. Neo-expressionists returned to portraying recognizable objects, such as the human body (although sometimes in a virtually abstract manner), in a rough and violently emotional way using vivid colours and banal colour harmonies. The veteran painters Philip Guston, Frank Auerbach, Leon Kossoff, Gerhard Richter, A. R. Penck and Georg Baselitz, along with slightly younger artists like Anselm Kiefer, Eric Fischl, Susan Rothenberg, Francesco Clemente, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Julian Schnabel, Keith Haring, and many others became known for working in this i
Contemporary painting into the 21st century

At the beginning of the 21st century Contemporary painting and Contemporary art in general continues in several contiguous modes, characterized by the idea of pluralism. The "crisis" in painting and current art and current art criticism today is brought about by pluralism. There is no consensus, nor need there be, as to a representative style of the age. There is an anything goes attitude that prevails; an "everything going on", and consequently "nothing going on" syndrome; this creates an aesthetic traffic jam with no firm and clear direction and with every lane on the artistic superhighway filled to capacity. Consequently magnificent and important works of art continue to be made albeit in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments, the marketplace being left to judge merit.Hard-edge painting, geometric abstraction, appropriation, hyperrealism, photorealism, expressionism, minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, pop art, op art, abstract expressionism, Color Field painting, monochrome painting, neo-expressionism, collage, intermedia painting, assemblage painting, digital painting, postmodern painting, neo-Dada painting, shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting, landscape painting, portrait painting, are a few continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century.




Painting in the Americas

During the period before and after European exploration and settlement of the Americas, including North America, Central America, South America and the Islands of the Caribbean, the Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and other island groups, indigenous native cultures produced creative works including architecture, pottery, ceramics, weaving, carving, sculpture, painting and murals as well as other religious and utilitarian objects. Each continent of the Americas hosted societies that were unique and individually developed cultures; that produced totems, works of religious symbolism, and decorative and expressive painted works. African influence was especially strong in the art of the Caribbean and South America. The arts of the indigenous people of the Americas had an enormous impact and influence on European art and vice-versa during and after the Age of Exploration. Spain, Portugal, France, The Netherlands, and England were all powerful and influential colonial powers in the Americas during and after the 15th century. By the 19th century cultural influence began to flow both ways across the Atlantic




Mexico and Central America

Image:Tetitla Teotihuacan Great Goddess mural (Abracapocus).jpg|Great Goddess mural from the site at Teotihuacán, MexicoImage:Tepantitla Mountain Stream mural Teotihuacan (Luis Tello).jpg|A portion of the actual mural from the Tepantitla compound which appears under the Great Goddess portrait, MexicoImage:Great Goddess of Teotihuacan (T Aleto).jpg|Mural from the Tepantitla compound showing what has been identified as an aspect of the Great Goddess of Teotihuacan, from a reproduction in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico CityImage:Jaguar Mural, Teotihuacan.jpg|Jaguar mural from the site at Teotihuacán, MexicoImage:SBmural.jpg|A Mayan mural from Guatemala, Pre-Classical period (1?250 AD)Image:Jaguar vase.jpg|Painting on the Lord of the jaguar pelt throne vase, a scene of the Maya court, 700?800 AD.Image:Bonampak painting.jpg|A Mayan mural from Bonampak, Mexico, 580?800 AD.Image:Bonampakmural3.jpg|A Mayan mural from Bonampak, 580?800 ADImage:Dresden Codex p09.jpg|Painting from a Maya codexImage:Jaina-style Drunkard Figurine.jpg|Painted pottery figurine of a drunkard from the burial site at Jaina Island, Mayan art, 400?800 AD.Image:Palenque Relief.jpg|Painted relief of the Maya site Palenque, featuring the son of K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab' III (678?730s?, r. 722?729).Image:Mayanvase.jpg|Painting on a Maya vase from the Late Classical Period (600?900), from Copán, HondurasImage:Quetzalcoatl Ehecatl.jpg|An Aztec painting from the Codex BorgiaImage:Codex Borbonicus, p11 trecena13.PNG|An Aztec painting from the Codex BorbonicusImage:Mexico.Tlax.Cacaxtla.01.jpg|Detail from the Battle Mural, c.600?700, Cacaxtla, MexicoImage:Aztec5figure9.jpg|A painting from Codex Mendoza showing elder Aztecs being given intoxicants, Mexico, c.1553




South America

Image:Orca_mitica_nasca.jpg|Killer Whale, painted pottery, Nazca culture, 300 BC?800 AD, Larco Museum. Lima, PeruImage:Nazca-pottery-(01).png|Painted pottery from the Nazca culture of Peru, 300 BC?800 ADImage:H Luna Frisorestaurado lou.jpg|A Moche mural of a decapitator from the Huaca de la Luna site, Peru, 100?700 AD.Image:Huaca de la Luna - Août 2007.jpg|Moche murals from the Huaca de la Luna site, Peru, 100?700 AD.Image:Huari pottery 01.png|Painted pottery from the Huari culture of Peru, 500?1200 ADImage:Brazilian-Indians.jpg|Body painting, Indigenous peoples in Brazil, a Brazilian Indian couple, c.2000




United States

Image:GreatGalleryPanel.jpg|The Great Gallery, Pictographs, Canyonlands National Park, Horseshoe Canyon, Utah, , c. 1500 BCE Image:pictograph_jqjacobs.jpg|Pictograph, southeastern Utah, c. 1200 BC Pueblo cultureImage:Chaco Anasazi canteen NPS.jpg|Painted pottery, Anasazi, North America: A canteen (pot) excavated from the ruins in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, c. 700 AD?1100 ADImage:Mississippian Underwater Panther ceramic.JPG|Painted ceramic jug showing the underwater panther from the Mississippian culture, found at Rose Mound in Cross County, Arkansas, c. 1400?1600.Image:Dahlem Wolfsmaske Haida.jpg|A Haida wolf mask, 1880.Image:Ceramic Hopi jar - by-Nampeyo - date-ca. 1880 - from-DC1.jpg|A Hopi jar by Nampeyo (c.1860?1942), made in Arizona, 1880.Image:Zuni-girl-with-jar2.png|A girl from the Zuni tribe of New Mexico with a painted pottery jar, photographed in c. 1903.Image:Navajo sandpainting.jpg|Edward S. Curtis, Navajo sandpainting, sepia photogravure c. 1907Image:Zahadolzhá--Navaho.jpg|Navajo man in ceremonial dress with mask and body paint, c. 1904Image:Blackhawk-spiritbeing.jpg|Ledger art of Haokah (ca. 1880) by Black Hawk (Lakota).Image:Ledger-sm2.jpg|Kiowa ledger art, possibly of the 1874 Buffalo Wallow battle, Red River War.File:Silver horn painting 1880 ohs.jpg|Detail of ledger painting on muslin by Silver Horn (1860?1940), ca. 1880, Oklahoma History CenterFile:Carl sweezy 1904.jpg|Work on Paper, by Arapaho painter, Carl Sweezy (1881?1953), 1904Image:UteHideArt3.jpg|An Uncompaghre Ute, Shaved Beaver Hide Painting. The Northern Ute would trap beavers, shave images into the animals' stretched and cured hides, and use them to decorate their personal and ceremonial dwellings, c. 19th century.Image:Tlingit totem pole.jpg|Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan, Alaska, circa 1901.Image:Tlingit K'alyaan Totem Pole August 2005.jpg|The K'alyaan Totem Pole of the Tlingit Kiks.ádi Clan, erected at Sitka National Historical Park to commemorate the lives lost in the 1804 Battle of Sitka.Image:Ketchican totem pole 2 stub.jpg|A totem pole in Ketchikan, Alaska, in the Tlingit style.Image:Yupik mask Branly 70-1999-1-2.jpg|Fish mask of the Yupi'k people, painted wood, Yukon/Kuskokwim region Alaska, c. early 20th centuryImage:Totem pole (js) 2.jpg|From Saxman Totem Park, Ketchikan, AlaskaImage:Totem pole (js) 3.jpg|From Saxman Totem Park, Ketchikan, Alaska




Canada

Image:Totem Park pole 1.jpg|A totem pole in Totem Park, Victoria, British Columbia.Image:Totem Park pole 2.jpg|From Totem Park, Victoria, British Columbia.




Caribbean

Image:Petroglyph at Caguana.jpg|Rock petroglyph overlaid with chalk, Caguana Indigenous Ceremonial Center. Utuado, Puerto Rico.




Islamic painting

Image:Yahyâ ibn Mahmûd al-Wâsitî 007.jpg|Yahyâ ibn Mahmûd al-Wâsitî, Iraq, 1237Image:Yahyâ ibn Mahmûd al-Wâsitî 004.jpg|Yahyâ ibn Mahmûd al-Wâsitî, Iraq, 1237Image:Syrischer Maler um 1315 001.jpg|Syrischer Maler, 1315 Metropolitan Museum of ArtImage:Iskandar (Alexander the Great) at the Talking Tree.jpg|Ilkhanid Shahnameh, ca. 1330?1340, SmithsonianImage:Kamal-ud-din Bihzad 001.jpg|Kamal-ud-din Bihzad (c. 1450 ? c. 1535), The construction of castle Khavarnaq (???????) in al-Hira, c. 1494?1495 C.E. British MuseumImage:Miraj_by_Sultan_Muhammad.jpg|Persian miniature painting, CE 1550Image:Saki - Reza Abbasi - Moraqqa?-e Golshan 1609 Golestan Palace.jpg|Reza Abbasi, 1609Image:Meister des Razm-Nâma-Manuskripts 001.jpg|Razmnama, 1616, British MuseumImage:Twolovers.jpg|Two Lovers by Reza Abbasi, 1630Image:Harun Al-Rashid and the World of the Thousand and One Nights.jpg|Persian miniature Harun al-Rashid in Thousand and One NightsImage:Georgian prince by Reza Abbasi.jpg|Reza Abbasi (1565?1635), Prince Muhammad-Beik of Georgia, 1620Image:Adam and Eve from a copy of the Falnama.jpg|Adam and Eve, Safavid Iran, from a Falnama (book of Omens) c. 1550 AD.Image:Arabischer Maler um 1335 002.jpg|A painting depicting Abû Zayd, 1335 AD.Image:Irakischer Maler um 1210 001.jpg|A scene from the book of Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Ahnaf, showing two galloping horsemen, 1210 AD.Image:Irakischer Maler um 1280 001.jpg|The angel Isrâfîl, Iraq, 1280 AD.Image:Irakischer Maler von 1287 002.jpg|The Clerk, Iraq, 1287.Image:Al-Bawwâb 001.jpg|An ornamental Qur'an, by al-Bawwâb, 11th century AD.Image:Sarayi_Album_10a.jpg|Mehmet II, from the Sarai Albums of Istanbul, Turkey, 15th century ADImage:Maiden fur cap Louvre OA7128.jpg|Maiden in a fur cap, by Muhammad ?Alî, Isfahan, Iran, mid-17th centuryImage:Youth and suitors.jpg|Youth and Suitors, Mashhad, Iran, 1556?1565 ADThe depiction of humans, animals or any other figurative subjects is forbidden within Islam to prevent believers from idolatry so there is no religiously motivated painting (or sculpture) tradition within Muslim culture. Pictorial activity was reduced to Arabesque, mainly abstract, with geometrical configuration or floral and plant-like patterns. Strongly connected to architecture and calligraphy, it can be widely seen as used for the painting of tiles in mosques or in illuminations around the text of the Koran and other books. In fact, abstract art is not an invention of modern art but it is present in pre-classical, barbarian and non-western cultures many centuries before it and is essentially a decorative or applied art. Notable illustrator M. C. Escher was influenced by this geometrical and pattern-based art. Art Nouveau (Aubrey Beardsley and the architect Antonio Gaudí) re-introduced abstract floral patterns into western art.Note that despite the taboo of figurative visualization, some Muslim countries did cultivate a rich tradition in painting, though not in its own right, but as a companion to the written word. Iranian or Persian art, widely known as Persian miniature, concentrates on the illustration of epic or romantic works of literature. Persian illustrators deliberately avoided the use of shading and perspective, though familiar with it in their pre-Islamic history,
Iran

Oriental historian Basil Gray believes "Iran has offered a particularly unique art to the world which is excellent in its kind". Caves in Iran's Lorestan province exhibit painted imagery of animals and hunting scenes. Some such as those in Fars Province and Sialk are at least 5,000 years old. Painting in Iran is thought to have reached a climax during the Tamerlane era, when outstanding masters such as Kamaleddin Behzad gave birth to a new style of painting.Paintings of the Qajar period are a combination of European influences and Safavid miniature schools of painting such as those introduced by Reza Abbasi and classical works by Mihr 'Ali. Masters such as Kamal-ol-molk further pushed forward the European influence in Iran. It was during the Qajar era when "Coffee House painting" emerged. Subjects of this style were often religious in nature depicting scenes from Shia epics and the like.Image:Babur-drunken.jpg|Farrukh Beg (ca. 1545 ? ca. 1615), A Drunken Babur Returns to Camp at Night, Lahore, Pakistan, 1589File:Fath_Ali_Shah(Saad_Abad).jpg|Mihr 'Ali (fl. 1795?1830), Fat'h Ali Shah Qajar (1813?14)File:Rammal by Kamalolmolk.jpg|Kamal-ol-molk (1847?1940), Predictor of the Future, 1892, Museum of Sadabad, Teheran




Pakistan

Image:LAgha_Star.jpg|Lubna Agha, Star ? a painting inspired by the artisans of Morocco Image:Anarkali.jpg|AR Chughtai, Anarkali




Oceania




Australia




New Zealand




Africa

Image:Himba_lady_preparing_deodorant.jpg|Himba woman covered with traditional red ochre pigment. Traditional body paint symbolic of the earth and of blood, and also worn for protection from the sun.Image:Kikuyu_woman_traditional_dress.jpg|A K?k?y? woman in traditional dress. Ceremonial face painting.Image:Young Maasai Warrior.jpg|Young Maasai Warrior, with head-dress and face painting.Image:Dogon Circumsion Cave Painting.jpg|Dogon, circumcision cave, with paintings Mali c. contemporaryAfrican traditional culture and tribes do not seem to have great interest in two-dimensional representations in favour of sculpture and relief. However, decorative painting in African culture is often abstract and geometrical. Another pictorial manifestation is body painting, and face painting present for example in Maasai and K?k?y? culture in their ceremony rituals. Ceremonial cave painting in certain villages can be found to be still in use. Note that Pablo Picasso and other modern artists were influenced by African sculpture and masks in their varied styles.Contemporary African artists follow western art movements and their paintings have little difference from occidental art works.




Influence on Western art

At the start of the 20th century, artists like Picasso, Matisse, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Modigliani became aware of, and were inspired by, African art. In a situation where the established avant garde was straining against the constraints imposed by serving the world of appearances, African Art demonstrated the power of supremely well organised forms; produced not only by responding to the faculty of sight, but also and often primarily, the faculty of imagination, emotion and mystical and religious experience. These artists saw in African art a formal perfection and sophistication unified with phenomenal expressive power.




See also




Further reading

    Pictures of Nothing: Abstract Art since Pollock (A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts), Kirk Varnedoe, 2003





 
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